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English Grammar Participles

Click the text to read an explanation of the grammar

What is a participle?

A participle is a word formed from a verb that can function as part of a verb phrase.

For example:-

has been

Or independently as an adjective.

For example:-

working woman
hot water bottle

There are three forms of participle: The present participle, the past participle and the perfect participle.

!Note - We use past participles (-ed) to describe how we feel. We use present participles [-ing] to describe what caused the feelings.


Click the text to read an explanation of the grammar

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English Grammar Participles

What is a participle?

A participle is a word formed from a verb that can function as part of a verb phrase.

For example:-

has been

Or independently as an adjective.

For example:-

working woman
hot water bottle

There are three forms of participle: The present participle, the past participle and the perfect participle.

!Note - We use past participles (-ed) to describe how we feel. We use present participles [-ing] to describe what caused the feelings.

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English Grammar Prepositions

Click the text to read an explanation of the grammar

Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun.

The good news is that they never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

Simple prepositions are single word prepositions - across, after, at, before, between, by, during, from, in, into, of, on, to, under, with and without are all single word prepositions.

For example:-

  • The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions are more than one word - in between and because of - are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of - are prepositions made up of three words.

For example:-

  • The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.
  • The book is in front of the clock.

Click the text to read an explanation of the grammar

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English Grammar Prepositions

Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun.

The good news is that they never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

Simple prepositions are single word prepositions - across, after, at, before, between, by, during, from, in, into, of, on, to, under, with and without are all single word prepositions.

For example:-

  • The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions are more than one word - in between and because of - are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of - are prepositions made up of three words.

For example:-

  • The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.
  • The book is in front of the clock.
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English Grammar Nouns

A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or abstract idea. A noun can tell you who or what.

There are several different types of noun:-

  • There are common nouns such as dog, car, chair etc.
  • Nouns that refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural) are countable nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular) are uncountable nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are collective nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to people, organisations or places are proper nouns, only proper nouns are capitalised.
  • Nouns that are made up of two or more words are called compound nouns.
  • Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -ing are called gerunds
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English Grammar Nouns

A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or abstract idea. A noun can tell you who or what.

There are several different types of noun:-

  • There are common nouns such as dog, car, chair etc.
  • Nouns that refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural) are countable nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular) are uncountable nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are collective nouns.
  • Nouns that refer to people, organisations or places are proper nouns, only proper nouns are capitalised.
  • Nouns that are made up of two or more words are called compound nouns.
  • Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -ing are called gerunds
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Abstract Nouns

An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense, it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun.

For example:-

Justice; an idea, bravery and happiness are all abstract nouns.

Here is an a-z list of some common abstract nouns:-

adoration artistry



belief bravery



calm charity childhood comfort compassion
dexterity




ego




failure faith feelings friendship

happiness hate honesty hope

idea impression infatuation


joy




law liberty love loyalty

maturity memory



omen




peace pride principle power

redemption romance



sadness sensitivity skill sleep success sympathy
talent thrill truth


wit




See also Concrete Nouns


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Abstract Nouns

An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense, it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun.

For example:-

Justice; an idea, bravery and happiness are all abstract nouns.

Here is an a-z list of some common abstract nouns:-

adoration artistry
belief bravery
calm charity childhood comfort compassion
dexterity
ego
failure faith feelings friendship
happiness hate honesty hope
idea impression infatuation
joy
law liberty love loyalty
maturity memory
omen
peace pride principle power
redemption romance
sadness sensitivity skill sleep success sympathy
talent thrill truth
wit

See also Concrete Nouns

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Collective Nouns / Group Nouns

A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things.

Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:-

For example:-

Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture.
Plates, saucers, cups and bowls are grouped under the collective noun crockery.

These collective nouns are often uncountable.

Sometimes they are more general:-

For example:-

Groups of people - army, audience, band, choir, class, committee, crew, family, gang, jury, orchestra, police, staff, team, trio

Groups of animals - colony, flock, herd, pack, pod, school, swarm

Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump, pair, set, stack

When such a group is considered as a single unit, the collective noun is used with a singular verb and singular pronouns.

For example - The committee has reached its decision.

But when the focus is on the individual members of the group, British English uses a plural verb and plural pronouns.

For example - "The committee have been arguing all morning." This is the same as saying "The people in the committe have been ...."

A determiner in front of a singular collective noun is always singular: this committee , never these committee (but of course when the collective noun is pluralized, it takes a plural determiner: these committees ).


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Collective Nouns / Group Nouns

A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things.

Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:-

For example:-

Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture.
Plates, saucers, cups and bowls are grouped under the collective noun crockery.

These collective nouns are often uncountable.

Sometimes they are more general:-

For example:-

Groups of people - army, audience, band, choir, class, committee, crew, family, gang, jury, orchestra, police, staff, team, trio

Groups of animals - colony, flock, herd, pack, pod, school, swarm

Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump, pair, set, stack

When such a group is considered as a single unit, the collective noun is used with a singular verb and singular pronouns.

For example - The committee has reached its decision.

But when the focus is on the individual members of the group, British English uses a plural verb and plural pronouns.

For example - "The committee have been arguing all morning." This is the same as saying "The people in the committe have been ...."

A determiner in front of a singular collective noun is always singular: this committee , never these committee (but of course when the collective noun is pluralized, it takes a plural determiner: these committees ).

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Common Nouns

A common noun is a word that names people, places, things, or ideas. They are not the names of a single person, place or thing.

A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence.

For example:-

People:-

man, girl, boy, mother, father, child, person, teacher, student

Animals:-

cat, dog, fish, ant, snake

Things:-

book, table, chair, phone

Places:-

school, city, building, shop

Ideas:-

love, hate, idea, pride

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Common Nouns

A common noun is a word that names people, places, things, or ideas. They are not the names of a single person, place or thing.

A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence.

For example:-

People:-

man, girl, boy, mother, father, child, person, teacher, student

Animals:-

cat, dog, fish, ant, snake

Things:-

book, table, chair, phone

Places:-

school, city, building, shop

Ideas:-

love, hate, idea, pride

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Compound Nouns

A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives.

For example:

The words tooth and paste are each nouns in their own right, but if you join them together they form a new word - toothpaste.

The word black is an adjective and board is a noun, but if you join them together they form a new word - blackboard.

In both these example the first word modifies or describes the second word, telling us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. And the second part identifies the object or person in question.

Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:-

Noun + Noun toothpaste
Adjective + Noun monthly ticket
Verb + Noun swimming pool
Preposition + Noun underground
Noun + Verb haircut
Noun + Preposition hanger on
Adjective + Verb dry-cleaning
Preposition + Verb output

The two parts may be written in a number of ways:-

1. Sometimes the two words are joined together.
Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom

2. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen.
Example: check-in

3. Sometimes they appear as two separate words.
Example: full moon

A good dictionary will tell you how you should write each compound noun.


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Compound Nouns

A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives.

For example:

The words tooth and paste are each nouns in their own right, but if you join them together they form a new word - toothpaste.

The word black is an adjective and board is a noun, but if you join them together they form a new word - blackboard.

In both these example the first word modifies or describes the second word, telling us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. And the second part identifies the object or person in question.

Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:-

Noun + Noun toothpaste
Adjective + Noun monthly ticket
Verb + Noun swimming pool
Preposition + Noun underground
Noun + Verb haircut
Noun + Preposition hanger on
Adjective + Verb dry-cleaning
Preposition + Verb output

The two parts may be written in a number of ways:-

1. Sometimes the two words are joined together.
Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom

2. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen.
Example: check-in

3. Sometimes they appear as two separate words.
Example: full moon

A good dictionary will tell you how you should write each compound noun.

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Concrete Nouns

A concrete noun is the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are concrete nouns. The opposite of a concrete noun is an abstract noun.

For example:-

Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all concrete nouns.

See also Abstract Nouns


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Concrete Nouns

A concrete noun is the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are concrete nouns. The opposite of a concrete noun is an abstract noun.

For example:-

Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all concrete nouns.

See also Abstract Nouns

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Countable / Uncountable Nouns

A noun can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns can be "counted", they have a singular and plural form .

For example:

  • A book, two books, three books .....
  • An apple, two apples, three apples ....

Uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns or noncount nouns) cannot be counted, they are not seperate objects. This means you cannot make them plural by adding -s, because they only have a singular form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them.

For example:

  • Water
  • Work
  • Information
  • Coffee
  • Sand
Countable
(use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns)
Uncountable
(there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns)
An Apple / 1 Apple Rice
I eat an apple every day. I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day.)
Add (s) to make a countable noun plural There is no plural form for an uncountable noun
apples rice
I eat an apple every day. Apples are good for you. I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.
A computer= Computers are fun. To make uncountable nouns countable add a counting word, such as a unit of measurement, or the general word piece. We use the form "a ....... of ......."
An elephant=Elephants are large. Rice=a grain of rice

Water=a glass of water

Rain=a drop of rain

Music=a piece of music
You can use some and any with countable nouns.
Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work.
You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.
I usually drink some wine with my meal.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use many and few with plural countable nouns.
So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species.
There are few elephants in England.
You only use much and little with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.
You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns.
No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before.
You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns.
A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.
Making uncountable nouns countable

You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun.

For example:-

  • A piece of information.
  • 2 glasses of water.
  • 10 litres of coffee.
  • Three grains of sand.
  • A pane of glass.
Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns

The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing.

Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object).

For example:-

glass - A glass of water. (Countable) | A window made of glass. (Uncountable)

Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers, or one of several types.

This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted.

Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:-

Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day.
(Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee)
You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day."

The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian.
(Here coffees refers to different types of coffee)
You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian."

!Note - In good monolingual dictionaries, uncountable nouns are identified by [U] and countable nouns by [C].

Countable / Uncountable Lesson

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Countable / Uncountable Nouns

A noun can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns can be "counted", they have a singular and plural form .

For example:

  • A book, two books, three books .....
  • An apple, two apples, three apples ....

Uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns or noncount nouns) cannot be counted, they are not seperate objects. This means you cannot make them plural by adding -s, because they only have a singular form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them.

For example:

  • Water
  • Work
  • Information
  • Coffee
  • Sand
Countable
(use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns)
Uncountable
(there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns)
An Apple / 1 Apple Rice
I eat an apple every day. I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day.)
Add (s) to make a countable noun plural There is no plural form for an uncountable noun
apples rice
I eat an apple every day. Apples are good for you. I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.
A computer= Computers are fun. To make uncountable nouns countable add a counting word, such as a unit of measurement, or the general word piece. We use the form "a ....... of ......."
An elephant=Elephants are large. Rice=a grain of rice
Water=a glass of water
Rain=a drop of rain
Music=a piece of music
You can use some and any with countable nouns.
Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work.
You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.
I usually drink some wine with my meal.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use many and few with plural countable nouns.
So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species.
There are few elephants in England.
You only use much and little with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.
You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns.
No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before.
You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns.
A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.
Making uncountable nouns countable

You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun.

For example:-

  • A piece of information.
  • 2 glasses of water.
  • 10 litres of coffee.
  • Three grains of sand.
  • A pane of glass.
Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns

The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing.

Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object).

For example:-

glass - A glass of water. (Countable) | A window made of glass. (Uncountable)

Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers, or one of several types.

This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted.

Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:-

Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day.
(Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee)
You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day."

The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian.
(Here coffees refers to different types of coffee)
You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian."

!Note - In good monolingual dictionaries, uncountable nouns are identified by [U] and countable nouns by [C].

Countable / Uncountable Lesson
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Gerund Nouns

A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing. It can follow a preposition, adjective and most often another verb.

For example:

  • I enjoy walking.

See also Gerunds/Infinitives


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Gerund Nouns

A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing. It can follow a preposition, adjective and most often another verb.

For example:

  • I enjoy walking.

See also Gerunds/Infinitives

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Simple Pluralisation Guide

The plural form of most nouns is created simply by adding the letter 's' to the end of the word .

For example:-

  • minute - minutes

Nouns that end in -ch, -x, -s, -sh, z or s-like sounds, the plural is formed by adding 'es' to the end of the word.

For example:-

  • church - churches | box - boxes | gas - gases | bush - bushes | ass - asses

Nouns that end in a single -z, the plural is formed by adding 'zes' to the end of the word.

For example:-

  • quiz - quizzes

Most nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant also form their plurals by adding 'es' .

For example:-

  • potato - potatoes | tomato - tomatoes | volcano - volcanoes

However many newly created words and words with a Spanish or Italian origin that end in -o just add an 's'.

For example:-

  • photo - photos | piano - pianos | portico - porticos

Nouns ending in a consonant + y, drop the y and add 'ies'.

For example:-

  • party - parties | lady - ladies

Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the f and add 'ves'.

For example:-

  • calf - calves | half - halves | wolf - wolves

Most words ending in -is, drop the -is and add -es.

For example:-

  • crisis - crises | hypothesis - hypotheses | oasis - oases

Irregular Plurals

There are many common nouns that have irregular plurals.

For example:-

  • child - children | person - people | foot - feet | mouse - mice | tooth - teeth

Some nouns have identical plural and singular forms, although they are still considered to have a plural form.

For example:-

  • aircraft - aircraft | fish - fish | headquarters - headquarters | sheep - sheep | species - species

Uncountable nouns on the other hand have no plural form and take a singular verb (is / was ...).

For example:-

  • advice | information | luggage | news

Some nouns (especially those associated with two things) exist only in the plural form and take a plural verb (are / were...).

For example:-

  • cattle | scissors | trousers | tweezers | congratulations | pyjamas

Nouns that stem from older forms of English or are of foreign origin often have odd plurals.

For example:-

  • ox - oxen | index - indices or indexes

In compound nouns the plural ending is usually added to the main noun.

For example:-

  • court martial - courts martial | son-in-law - sons-in-law | passer-by - passers-by

!Note - Some nouns just create controversy. Did you know that the proper plural spelling for roof is rooves and not the more common roofs?


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Simple Pluralisation Guide

The plural form of most nouns is created simply by adding the letter 's' to the end of the word .

For example:-

  • minute - minutes

Nouns that end in -ch, -x, -s, -sh, z or s-like sounds, the plural is formed by adding 'es' to the end of the word.

For example:-

  • church - churches | box - boxes | gas - gases | bush - bushes | ass - asses

Nouns that end in a single -z, the plural is formed by adding 'zes' to the end of the word.

For example:-

  • quiz - quizzes

Most nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant also form their plurals by adding 'es' .

For example:-

  • potato - potatoes | tomato - tomatoes | volcano - volcanoes

However many newly created words and words with a Spanish or Italian origin that end in -o just add an 's'.

For example:-

  • photo - photos | piano - pianos | portico - porticos

Nouns ending in a consonant + y, drop the y and add 'ies'.

For example:-

  • party - parties | lady - ladies

Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the f and add 'ves'.

For example:-

  • calf - calves | half - halves | wolf - wolves

Most words ending in -is, drop the -is and add -es.

For example:-

  • crisis - crises | hypothesis - hypotheses | oasis - oases

Irregular Plurals

There are many common nouns that have irregular plurals.

For example:-

  • child - children | person - people | foot - feet | mouse - mice | tooth - teeth

Some nouns have identical plural and singular forms, although they are still considered to have a plural form.

For example:-

  • aircraft - aircraft | fish - fish | headquarters - headquarters | sheep - sheep | species - species

Uncountable nouns on the other hand have no plural form and take a singular verb (is / was ...).

For example:-

  • advice | information | luggage | news

Some nouns (especially those associated with two things) exist only in the plural form and take a plural verb (are / were...).

For example:-

  • cattle | scissors | trousers | tweezers | congratulations | pyjamas

Nouns that stem from older forms of English or are of foreign origin often have odd plurals.

For example:-

  • ox - oxen | index - indices or indexes

In compound nouns the plural ending is usually added to the main noun.

For example:-

  • court martial - courts martial | son-in-law - sons-in-law | passer-by - passers-by

!Note - Some nouns just create controversy. Did you know that the proper plural spelling for roof is rooves and not the more common roofs?

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Predicate Nouns

A predicate noun follows a form of the verb "to be".

He is an idiot. (Here idiot is a predicate noun because it follows is; a form of the verb "be".)

A predicate noun renames the subject of a sentence.

Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister. (Margaret Thatcher is the subject and Prime Minister is the predicate noun - notice it follows 'was' the past tense of 'to be'.)


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Predicate Nouns

A predicate noun follows a form of the verb "to be".

He is an idiot. (Here idiot is a predicate noun because it follows is; a form of the verb "be".)

A predicate noun renames the subject of a sentence.

Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister. (Margaret Thatcher is the subject and Prime Minister is the predicate noun - notice it follows 'was' the past tense of 'to be'.)

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Proper Nouns

Proper nouns ( also called proper names) are the words which name specific people, organisations or places. They always start with a capital letter.

For example:-

Each part of a person's name is a proper noun:-

Lynne Hand - Elizabeth Helen Ruth Jones ...

The names of companies, organisations or trade marks:-

Microsoft - Rolls Royce - the Round Table - WWW

Given or pet names of animals:-

Lassie Trigger Sam

The names of cities and countries and words derived from those proper nouns:-

Paris - London - New York - England - English

Geographical and Celestial Names:-

the Red Sea - Alpha Centauri - Mars

Monuments, buildings, meeting rooms:-

The Taj Mahal - The Eiffel Tower - Room 222

Historical events, documents, laws, and periods:-

the Civil War - the Industrial Revolution - World War I

Months, days of the week, holidays:-

Monday - Christmas - December

Religions, deities, scriptures:-

God - Christ - Jehovah - Christianity - Judaism - Islam - the Bible - the Koran - the Torah

Awards, vehicles, vehicle models and names, brand names:-

the Nobel Peace Prize - the Scout Movement - Ford Focus - the Bismarck - Kleenex - Hoover


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Proper Nouns

Proper nouns ( also called proper names) are the words which name specific people, organisations or places. They always start with a capital letter.

For example:-

Each part of a person's name is a proper noun:-

Lynne Hand - Elizabeth Helen Ruth Jones ...

The names of companies, organisations or trade marks:-

Microsoft - Rolls Royce - the Round Table - WWW

Given or pet names of animals:-

Lassie Trigger Sam

The names of cities and countries and words derived from those proper nouns:-

Paris - London - New York - England - English

Geographical and Celestial Names:-

the Red Sea - Alpha Centauri - Mars

Monuments, buildings, meeting rooms:-

The Taj Mahal - The Eiffel Tower - Room 222

Historical events, documents, laws, and periods:-

the Civil War - the Industrial Revolution - World War I

Months, days of the week, holidays:-

Monday - Christmas - December

Religions, deities, scriptures:-

God - Christ - Jehovah - Christianity - Judaism - Islam - the Bible - the Koran - the Torah

Awards, vehicles, vehicle models and names, brand names:-

the Nobel Peace Prize - the Scout Movement - Ford Focus - the Bismarck - Kleenex - Hoover

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Past Participles

What is a past participle?

A past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed by adding d or ed, to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.

It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.

For example:-

I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Her hair was well brushed.

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: He had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an adjective.)

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.


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Past Participles

What is a past participle?

A past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed by adding d or ed, to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.

It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.

For example:-

I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Her hair was well brushed.

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: He had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an adjective.)

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.

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Perfect Participles

What is the perfect participle?

The perfect participle indicates completed action. You form the perfect participle by putting the present participle having in front of the past participle.

For example:-

having done, having finished, having read, having spoken

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Having improved her English Pia's promotion prospects were much better.

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.


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Perfect Participles

What is the perfect participle?

The perfect participle indicates completed action. You form the perfect participle by putting the present participle having in front of the past participle.

For example:-

having done, having finished, having read, having spoken

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Having improved her English Pia's promotion prospects were much better.

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.

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Present Participles

What is the present participle?

The present participle is a participle that ends in ing. It can be used with the auxilliary verb 'to be' to form the continuous tense. It always takes the ‘ing’ form of the verb, even irregular verbs have an ‘...ing’ form, in fact virtually all English words that end with ‘ing’ are present participles.

For example:-

I am learning English. (Learning is part of the continuous verb phrase 'am learning')

We were running through the woods. (Running is part of the continuous verb phrase 'were running' ).

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: I am a working woman. (Working is used here as an adjective.)

!Note :-

The present participle can also be used as a noun denoting the action of a verb a gerund. But remember the present participle can be used as a verb or an adjective whilst the gerund is used as a noun.


Cara Cepat Belajar Bahasa Inggris

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Present Participles

What is the present participle?

The present participle is a participle that ends in ing. It can be used with the auxilliary verb 'to be' to form the continuous tense. It always takes the ‘ing’ form of the verb, even irregular verbs have an ‘...ing’ form, in fact virtually all English words that end with ‘ing’ are present participles.

For example:-

I am learning English. (Learning is part of the continuous verb phrase 'am learning')

We were running through the woods. (Running is part of the continuous verb phrase 'were running' ).

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: I am a working woman. (Working is used here as an adjective.)

!Note :-

The present participle can also be used as a noun denoting the action of a verb a gerund. But remember the present participle can be used as a verb or an adjective whilst the gerund is used as a noun.

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Prepositions of Movement

Prepositions can be used to show movement.

For example:-

to, through, across

We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination

For example:-
I moved to Germany in 1998.
He's gone to the shops.

We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other.

For example:
The train went through the tunnel.

We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.

For example:
She swam across the river.

More prepositions of movement
She ran

to the door.
through the tunnel. (from one side of an enclosed space to the other)
across the road. (from one side of an open space to the other)
along the road. (the length of the road)
down the road. (the length of the road)
over the bridge. (from one side of an open space to the other)
off the stage.
round the track.
into the room.

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Prepositions of Movement

Prepositions can be used to show movement.

For example:-

to, through, across

We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination

For example:-
I moved to Germany in 1998.
He's gone to the shops.

We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other.

For example:
The train went through the tunnel.

We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.

For example:
She swam across the river.

More prepositions of movement
She ran

to the door.
through the tunnel. (from one side of an enclosed space to the other)
across the road. (from one side of an open space to the other)
along the road. (the length of the road)
down the road. (the length of the road)
over the bridge. (from one side of an open space to the other)
off the stage.
round the track.
into the room.
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Prepositions of Place

Prepositions can be used to show where something is located.

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at to show a specific place or position.

For example:
Someone is at the door.
They are waiting at the bus stop.
I used to live at 51 Portland Street.

We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface.

For example:
The cat sat on the mat.
The satellite dish is on the roof.

We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc.

For example:
I used to live on Portland Street.

We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded.

For example:
The dog is in the garden.
She is in a taxi.
Put it in the box.

We also use in to show position within land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).

For example:
I used to live in Nottingham.

More prepositions of place
Prepositions of Place


after


She slammed the door
after her.
They ran after the thief.
among


I enjoy being among my friends.
I found my handbag among my luggage.
at


The secretary was sitting at her desk.
The man was standing at the taxi stand.
behind


The car park is behind the building.
He never won a race, he was always behind the others.
between


The prisoner sat between the two policemen.
I held the pen between my thumb and fingers.
in


The pen was in the drawer.
He lives in South Africa.
in front of


The teacher stands in front of the class.
The car was parked in front of the garage.
next to / beside / by


In my English lesson I always sit next to/
beside/by
my friend.
The bank is next to/
beside/by
the hotel.
on


The painting was hanging on the wall.
The boy was sitting on the chair.
over/above


The sign hanging over/above the door read 'No smoking'.
I put the tablecoth over the table.
I enjoy watching the planes fly above me.
under / below


The temperature outside was under/below 0.
The woman was sheltering under a tree.
When flying I enjoy watching the clouds below me.

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Prepositions of Place

Prepositions can be used to show where something is located.

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at to show a specific place or position.

For example:
Someone is at the door.
They are waiting at the bus stop.
I used to live at 51 Portland Street.

We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface.

For example:
The cat sat on the mat.
The satellite dish is on the roof.

We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc.

For example:
I used to live on Portland Street.

We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded.

For example:
The dog is in the garden.
She is in a taxi.
Put it in the box.

We also use in to show position within land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).

For example:
I used to live in Nottingham.

More prepositions of place
Prepositions of Place


after


She slammed the door
after her.
They ran after the thief.
among


I enjoy being among my friends.
I found my handbag among my luggage.
at


The secretary was sitting at her desk.
The man was standing at the taxi stand.
behind


The car park is behind the building.
He never won a race, he was always behind the others.
between


The prisoner sat between the two policemen.
I held the pen between my thumb and fingers.
in


The pen was in the drawer.
He lives in South Africa.
in front of


The teacher stands in front of the class.
The car was parked in front of the garage.
next to / beside / by


In my English lesson I always sit next to/
beside/by
my friend.
The bank is next to/
beside/by
the hotel.
on


The painting was hanging on the wall.
The boy was sitting on the chair.
over/above


The sign hanging over/above the door read 'No smoking'.
I put the tablecoth over the table.
I enjoy watching the planes fly above me.
under / below


The temperature outside was under/below 0.
The woman was sheltering under a tree.
When flying I enjoy watching the clouds below me.
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Prepositions of Time

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at for specific times.

For example:-
I start work at 7.00 a.m.
I don't work at night.

We use on for specific days and dates .

For example:
My birthday is on Monday.
We're having a party on 7th September.

We also use on for some special days.

For example:
On Christmas day.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.

For example:
In summer it's too hot to work.
I started this web site in 1999.
She woke up in the night.

More prepositions of time
Point in Time

at 6 o'clock
Midnight
on Saturday
April 10th
Christmas Day
by the end of July

(indicates a deadline=at the latest)
till / until / up to March

(indicates an end point)
since April
10th March

(indicates a beginning point in time)


Length of Time

in July
the autumn
the morning
the middle of …….
at night
the weekend
during the meeting
the lesson
for two days
twelve months
throughout August
the project

Cara Cepat Belajar Bahasa Inggris
0

Prepositions of Time

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at for specific times.

For example:-
I start work at 7.00 a.m.
I don't work at night.

We use on for specific days and dates .

For example:
My birthday is on Monday.
We're having a party on 7th September.

We also use on for some special days.

For example:
On Christmas day.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.

For example:
In summer it's too hot to work.
I started this web site in 1999.
She woke up in the night.

More prepositions of time
Point in Time

at 6 o'clock
Midnight
on Saturday
April 10th
Christmas Day
by the end of July

(indicates a deadline=at the latest)
till / until / up to March

(indicates an end point)
since April
10th March

(indicates a beginning point in time)


Length of Time

in July
the autumn
the morning
the middle of …….
at night
the weekend
during the meeting
the lesson
for two days
twelve months
throughout August
the project